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Classical Architecture

 

Architecture Dictionary: I

ICE HOUSE

A subterranean depot for preserving ice during the winter. The most important advice that can be given to the builder of an ice house is, that it be so thoroughly capable of drainage, from the lowest point of its floor, as to permit no water ever to collect upon it; this accomplished, no difficulty will, with common precaution, prevent the preserva¬tion of the ice. The aspect of such a building should be towards the south-east, that the morning sun mav expel the damp air which is more prejudicial than warmth. If possible, it should be placed on a declivity for the facility of drainage. At the end of the drain which is to carry away the water arising from the melted ice, a perfect air trap should he placed, to prevent all communication between the external and internal air, from which trap the water should be carried off without tbe possibility of obstruction. With respect to the dimensions and form of the ice house, the former must depend on the size of the establishment, which, if very large, will require one of a medium diameter, from fifteen to twenty feet; if moderate, one from eight to fifteen feet will be large enough. The best form is the frustum of an inverted cone, ten to twenty feet deep, bricked round, and with double walls, a cavity of four inches being left between them. The ice is sustained on a grated floor, through which the water is rapidly carried off by the drainage first mentioned. The ice is best collected during the severest part of the frost, and should be pounded as laid in the ice house, besides being well rammed down as it is put in. Snow however, hard rammed, will answer when ice cannot be obtained.

ICHMOGRAFHY

The representation of the ground plot of a building. In perspective, it is its representation, intersected by an horizontal plane at its base or groundfioor.

ICOSA BORON

One of the five regular or platonic bodies, bounded by twenty equilateral and equal triangles. It may be regarded as consisting of twenty equal and similar triangular pyramids, whose vertices all meet in the same point; and hence the content of one of these pyramids, multiplied by twenty, gives the whole content of the icosaedron.

IMPERIAL

(Fr.) A species of dome, whose profile is pointed towards the top, and widens towards the base, thus forming a curve of contrary flexure.

IMPETUS

(Lat) In mechanics, the same with momentum or force.

IMPLUVIUM

(Lat) In ancient architecture, tbe outer part of the court of a house which was exposed to the weather. In the summer time, it was the practice to stretch an awning over it

IMPOST

(Lat Impono, I lay on.) The capital of a pier or pilaster which receives an arch. It varies in the different orders; sometimes the whole of the entablature serves as the impost to an arch. The term is applicable to any supporting piece. An impost is said to be mutilated when its projection is diminished, so that it does not exceed that of tbe adjoining pilaster which it accompanies.

INBOND JAMBSTONE

A bondstone laid in the joint of an aperture.

INCERTUM

(Lat) A term used by Vitruvius to designate a mode of building which con-sisted of small rough stones and mortar, and whose face exhibited irregularly formed masonry, not laid in horizontal courses. See MASONRY. INCH. A measure of length, being the twelfth part of a foo

INCLINATION

(Lat) The approach of one line, which if continued will meet another or the same of two planes.

INCLINED PLANE

One of the five simple mechanical powers, whose theory is deduced from the decomposition of forces.

INCRUSTATION.

(Lat) Anything, such as mosaic, scagliola etc., applied by some connecting medium to another body.

INDEFINITE

(Lat) Anything which has only one extreme, whence it may be produced infinitely as it is produced from such extreme.

INDENTED.

(Lat) Toothed together, that is, with a projection fitted to a recess.

 

INDURATION

(Lat) A term applied to the firmer consistence which a body acquires from various causes.

INERTIA

(Lat Iners.) A term applied to that law of the material world which is known to predicate that all bodies are absolutely passive or indifferent to a state of rest or mo¬tion, and wouM continue in those states unless disturbed by the action of some extrinsic force. Inertia is one of the inherent properties of matter.

INFINITE

(Lat Infinitus, boundless.) In geometry, that which is greater than any assignable magnitude ; and as no such quantities exist in nature, the idea of an infinite quantity can only, and that most imperfectly, exist in the mind by excluding all notions of boundary or space.

INFIRMARY

A public building for the reception of the sick; but the term is more generally used to denote a sick-ward or building attached to some public establishment

INLAYING

The art of laying on some under surface a totally different kind of work to that which the original surface would present. Thus the materials are of no consequence: in stone the inlaying may be of mosaic work or in small pieces, as in wood it may be in patterns made out by different sorts of woods, which is called marquetry, or by some, parquetry. Veneering is also a species of inlaying.

INNER PLATE

The wall plate, in a double-plated roof, which lies nearest the centre of the roof; the side of the other wall plate, called the outer plate, being nearer the outer surface of the wall.

INNER SQUARE

The edges forming the internal right angle of the instrument called a square.

INSERTED COLUMN

One that is engaged in a wall.

 

INSULAR or INSULATED BUILDING

Such as stands entirely detached from any other.

INSULATED COLUMN

One detached from a wall, so that the whole of its surface may be seen.

INTAGLIO

(It.) Sculpture in which the subject is hollowed out, so that the impression from it would present the appearance of a bas-relief.

INTAVOLATA. The same as CYMATIUM

INTERCEPTED

Axis. In conic sections, that part of the diameter of a curve comprehended between the vertex and the ordinate. It is also called the abscissa, and forms an arch of a peculiar kind.

INTERCOLUMNIATION

(Lat Inter, between, and Columna, a column.) The distance between two columns measured at the lower part of their shafts. It is one of the most important elements in architecture, and on it depends the effect of the columns themselves, their pleasing proportion, and the harmony of an edifice. Intercolumniations are of five species, picnostylos, systylos, diastylos, arteostylos, and eustylos, under which several terms each is defined.

INTERDENTELS

The space between two dentels. From a comparison of various examples, it seems that the Greeks placed their dentels wider apart than the Romans. In the temple of Bacchus at Teos, the interdentel is two-thirds the breadth of the dentel, and in that of Minerva Polias at Priene, the interdentel is nearly three-fourths. In the temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome, the interdentels are equal to half the breadth of the dentel.

INTERIOR ANGLE

An angle formed within any figure by two straight lined parts of the perimeter or boundary of the figure, the exterior angle being that which is formed in producing a side of the perimeter of the figure. Tlie term is also applied to the two angles formed by two parallel lines, when cut on each side of the intersecting line.

INTERIOR AND OPPOSITE ANGLES

An expression applied to the two angles formed by a line cutting two parallels. INTERJOIST. The space or interval between two joists.

INTERMODILLION

The space between two modillions

INTERPILASTER

The space between two pilasters

INTERQUARTER

The interval between two quarters.

INTERTIES

Short pieces of timber used in roofing to bind upright posts together, in roofs, partitions, in lath and plaster work, and in walls with timber framework.

INTRADOS

The interior and lower line or curve of an arch. The exterior or upper curve is called the extradoe. See ARCH

INVENTION

(Lat Invenio, I find.) In the fine arts, the choice and production of such objects as are proper to enter into the composition of a work of art “ Strictly speaking,** says Sir Joshua Reynolds, “ invention is little more than a new combination of those images which have been previously gathered and deposited in the memory: nothing can come of nothing: he who has laid up no materials can produce no combinations.** Though there be nothing new under the sun, yet novelty in art will be attainable till all the combinations of the same things are exhausted, a circumstance that can never come to pass.

INVERTED

Arch. One wherein the lowest stone or brick is the key-stone. It is used in foundations, to distribute the weight of particular points over the whole extent of the foundation, and henoe its employment is frequently of the first importance in constructive architecture. Involute. See Evolute. I

INWARD ANGLE. The re-entrant angle of a solid.

 

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