Built In Art magazine

Dictionary

Classical Architecture

 

Architecture Dictionary: H

 

HACKS

In brickmaking the rows in which bricks are laid to dry after being moulded.

HACKING

In walling, denotes the interruption of a course of stones, by the introduction of another on a different level, for want of stones to complete the thickness. Thus making two courses at the end of a wall of the same height as one at the other. The last stone laid is often notched to receive the first stone of the other where the two heights commence. Hacking is never permitted in good work. The term is used more in Smirinml than in England.

HALF PACE

Halt Round. A semicircular moulding, which may be a bead or torus.

HALL

(Sax. Hal.) A name applied indifferently to the first large apartment on entering a house, to the public room of a corporate body, a court of justice, or to a manor house. Vitruvius mentions three sorts of halls: the Tetrastyle, which has four columns sup¬porting the ceiling; the Corinthian, which has engaged columns all round, and is vaulted; and the Egyptian, which has a peristyle of insulated Corinthian columns, bearing a second order with a ceiling. These were called ad. In magnificent edifices, where the hall is larger and loftier than ordinary, and is placed in the middle of the house, it is called a saloon; and a royal apartment consists of a hall or chamber of guards, a chamber, an anti-chamber, a cabinet chamber, and a gallery. 3

HALVING

A method of joining timbers by letting them into each other. It is preferable to mortising, even where the timbers do not pass each other, as they are leas liable to be displaced by shrinking. Ham. (Sax.) Properly a house or dwelling place; also a street or village, whence it has become the final syllable to many of our towns, as Nottingham, Buckingham, ; hence, too, hamlet, the diminutive of ham, is a small street or village.

HAMMER BEAM

A beam acting as a tie at the feet of a pair of principal rafters, but not extending so as to connect the opposite sides. Hammer beams are used chiefly in roots constructed after the Gothic style, the end which hangs over, being frequently supported by a concave rib springing from the wall, as a tangent from a curve, and in its turn supporting another rib, forming an arch. Hie ends of hammer beams are often decorated with beads 'and other devices. Hand-rail of a Stair. A rail raised upon slender posts, called balusters, to prevent persons falling down the well bole, as also to assist them in ascending and descending.

HANDSPIKE

A lever for raising a weight, usually of wood, and applied to the boles in a capstan head.

HANG OVER

(Verb.) A term used to denote the condition of a wall when the top projects beyond the bottom.

HANGINGS

Linings for rooms of arras, tapestry, paper, or the like. Paper hangings were introduced early in the seventeenth century.

HANGING STILE or A DOOR. That to which the hinges are attached.

HARMONICAL PROPORTION

That which, in a series of quantities, any three adjoining terms being taken, the difference between the first and second is to tbe difference between the second and third, as the first is to the third. HARMUS. (Gr. 'Apfios.) In ancient architecture, a tile used for covering the joint between two common tiles.

HARNESS ROOM

A room wherein harness is deposited. It is absolutely requisite that it be dry and kept clean. Its situation should be near the stable it is destined to serve.

HASSACK

The provincial name for Kentish rag stone.

HATCHET

(Fr. Hachette.) A small axe used by joiners for reducing the edges of boards.

HAUNCHES or AN ARCH

The parts between the crown and the springing. HAWK. A small quadrangular tool with a handle, used by a plasterer, on which tbe stuff required by him is served, for his proceeding with the work in progress. He has always a boy attendant on him, by whom he is supplied with the material. The boy in ques¬tion is called a Hawk-boy.

HEADERS

In masonry, stones extending over the thickness of a wall; and in brick* laying, the bricks which are laid lengthwise across the thickness of the wall are called headert.

HEADING COURSE

In brickwork and masonry, that in which the length of the stone or brick is across the thickness of the wall.

HEADING JOINT

In joinery, the joint of two or more boards at right angles to the fibres, or in handrailing at right angles to the back; this is so disposed with a view of con¬tinuing the length of the board when too short. In good work the heading joints are ploughed and tongued, and in dadoes are, moreover, connected with glue

HEADWAY or STAIRS

The clear distance, measured perpendicularly, from a given landing- place or stair to the ceiling above, allowing for the thickness of the steps.

HEADWORK

A name by which the heads and other ornaments on the keystones of arches is frequently designated

HEART BOND

In masonry, that in which two stones of a wall forming its breadth, have one stone of the same breadth placed over them.

HEATHER ROOF

A covering used in Scotland, by some considered superior to straw.

HECATOMPEDON

(Gr.) A temple of a hundred feet in length. As applied to the Parthenon, for discovering the true length of the Greek foot Stuart took considerable pains in the measurement of that temple. The results, as published by Revely, are as follow: — Length of the upper step, in front of the temple, gives for one foot - From outside to outside of tbe angular columns ... From centre to centre of the front columns - Length of the architrave .....

HEEK

The same as RACK. A term used by workmen to denote a cyma revena.

HEEL

The end or foot that rests on the wall plate.

 

HELIOCAMINUS

(Gr. ‘HAior, the sun, and Kopipor, a furnace.) A chamber in the Roman houses which depended on the rays of the sun for wanning it.

HELIX

A small volute or twist under the abacus of the Corinthian capital, in which there are, in every perfect capital, sixteen, two at each angle, and two meeting under the middle of the abacus, branching out of the caulicoli or stalks, which rise from between the leaves.

 

HEMICYCLE

A semicircle; the term is used architecturally to denote vaults of the cradle form, and arches or sweeps of vaults, constituting a semicircle.

HEMISPHERE

In geometry, tbe half of a globe or sphere, when divided by a plane passing through its centre.

HEMITRIGLYPH

A half triglyph.

 

HEPTAGON

(Gr.) A geometrical figure of seven sides and angles.

HERMITAGE.

A small hut or dwelling in an unfrequented place, occupied by a hermit.

HERRING BONE WORE

A disposition of bricks or stones laid diagonally (see diagram in the margin), each length receiving the end of tbe adjoining brick or stone. See ASHLAR.

HEWN STONE

That which is reduced to a given form by the use of the mallet and chisel

HEXAEDRON or CUBE

One of the five regular solids, so called from its having six faces or seats.

HEXAGON

In geometry, a plain figure bounded by six straight lines, which, when equal, constitute the figure a regular hexagon.

HEXASTYLE

That species of temple or building having six columns in front. See COLONNADE.

HICK-JOINT POINTING

That species of pointing in which, after the joints are raked out, a portion of superior mortar is inserted between the courses, and made perfectly smooth with the surface. See POINTING.

HIEROGLYPHICS

 

Sculpture or picture writing, which has obtained the name from being most commonly found on sacred buildings. They consist in the expression of a series of ideas by representations of visible objects. Hie name is, however, more particularly applied to a species of writing used by the ancient Egyptians, which, according to Champollion, was of three different vsrieties of characters: — 1. The hieroglyphic, properly so called, wherein the representation of the object conveys the idea of the object itself 2. That in which tbe characters represent ideas by images of visible objects used as symbols. 3. That consisting of phonetic characters, in which the sign does not represent an object but a sound.

HINGES

(from Hang). The metal joints upon which any body turns, such as doors, shutters, &c. There are many species of hinges.

HIP

A piece of timber placed between every two adjacent inclined sides of a hip roof, for the purpose of receiving what are called the jack rafters.

HIP Mould.

A term used by some workmen to denote the back of the hip ; by others it is used to signify the form or pattern by which the hip is set out.

HIP or HIPPED ROOF

A roof whose return at the end of a building rises immediately from the wall plate with the same inclination as the adjacent sides. The back of a hip is the angle made on its upper edge, to range with tbe two sides or planes of the roof, between which it is placed. The jack rafters are those short rafters which are shorter than the full-sized ones to fill in against the hips

HIP or CORNER TILES

are those used at the hips of roofs; they arc ten inches long, and of appropriate breadth and thickness, and bent on a mould before burning.

HIPPODROME

 

In ancient architecture, a place  appropriated by the Greeks to equestrian exercises, and one in which the prises were contended for. The most celebrated of these was at Olympia. It was four leagues long, and one in breadth.

HOARD

(Sax. Hopb, to keep.) A timber enclosure round a building, in the course of erection or under repair. HOD. An utensil employed by labourers for carrying mortar or bricks.

HOLDFAST

A long nail, with a flat short head for securing objects to a walL

HOLLOW

A concave moulding, whose section is about the quadrant of a circle; called, sometimes, by the workmen a casement.

HOLLOW NEWEL

An opening in the middle of a staircase. The term is used in contra¬istinction to solid newel, into which tbe ends of the steps are built In the hollow newel, or well hole, the steps are only supported at one end by the surrounding wall of the staircase, the ends next the hollow being unsupported.

HOLLOW QUOINS

Piers of brick or stone made behind the lock gates of canals.

HOLLOW WALL

One built in two thicknesses, leaving a cavity between them for the pur¬pose of saving materials, or for preserving an uniform temperature in an apartment

HOMESTALL

A mansion house, or seat in the country.

HOMOLOGOUS

In geometry, the correspondent sides of similar figures. The areas and solid contents of such figures are likewise homologous.

 

HOOK

(Sax. Hoce.) A bent piece of iron, used to fasten bodies together, or whereon to hang any article. They are of various kinds.

 

HOOKFINS. The same as DRAW BOREFINS

HORIZONTAL CORNICE

The level part of the cornice of a pediment under the two inclined cornices.

HORIZONTAL LINE. In perspective, the vanishing line of planes parallel to the horizon.

HORIZONTAL PLANE. A plane passing through the eye parallel to the horizon, and producing the vanishing line of all level planes.

HORIZONTAL PROJECTION. The projection made on a plane parallel to the horizon. This may be understood perspectively, or orthographically, according as the projecting rays are directed to a given point or perpendicular to a given point

HORN

A name sometimes given to the Ionic volute. Horreum. See Granary. m

HORSE BLOCK

A square frame of strong boards, used by excavators to elevate the aids of their wheeling planks. HORSE RUN. A contrivance for drawing up loaded wheelbarrows of soil from the deep cuttings of foundations, canals, docks, &c., by the help of a horse, which goes backwards and forwards instead of round, as in a horst-gxn.

HOSTEL or HOTEL

(Fr.) Among us this word is used to denote a large inn, or place of public entertainment; but on the Continent it is also used to signify a large house or palace.

HOT HOUSE

A general term for the glass buildings used in gardening, and including stoves, greenhouses, orangeries, and conservatories. Pits and frames are mere garden structures, with glass roofs, the sides and ends being of brick, stone, or wood, but so low as to prevent entrance into them; they cannot therefore be considered as hot¬houses.

HOUSE

(Germ. Hause.) A human habitation or place of abode of a family. Among the nations of the east and of the south, houses are flat on the top, to which ascent is general on the outside. As we proceed northward, a declivity of the roof becomes requisite to throw off the rain and snow, which are of greater continuance in higher latitudes. Amongst the ancient Greeks, Romans, ana Jews, the houses usually enclosed a quadrangular area or court, open to the sky. This part of the house was by tbe Romans called the implnvium or catxedium, and was provided with channels to carry off the waters into the sewers. Both tbe Roman and Greek house is described by Vitruvius, to whose work we must refer the reader for further information on these heads. The word house is used in various ways; as in the phrase, “ a religious house, either the buildings of a monastery, or the community of persons inhabiting them may be designated. In the middle ages, when a family retired to the lodge connected with the mansion, or to their country seat it was called 44 keeping their secret house. Every gradation of building for habitation, from the cottage to the palace, is embraced by tbe word house, so that to give a full account of the requisites of each would occupy more space than could be devoted to the subject in this place .

HOUSING.

The space taken out of one solid for the insertion of the extremity of another, for the purpose of connecting them. Thus the string board of a stair is most frequently notched out for the reception of the steps.

HOVEL

An open shed for sheltering cattle, for protecting produce or materials of different kinds from the weather, or for performing various country operations during heavy rains, falls of snow, or severe frosts.

HOVELLING

A mode of preventing chimneys from smoking, by carrying up two sides higher than those less liable to receive strong currents of air ; or apertures are left on all the sides, so that when the wind blows over the top, the smoke may escape below.

HUE

In painting, any degree of strength or vividness of colour, from its greatest or deepest to its weakest tint. Hundred or LIME. A denomination of measure which, in some places, is equal to thirty- five, in others to twenty-five, heaped bushels or bags, the latter being the quantity about London, that is, one hundred pecks. The hundred is also used for numbering, thus deals are sold by the long hundred, or six score. Pales and laths are sold at five score to the hundred if five feet long, and six score if only three feet long. The hundred weight is 112 lbs. avoirdupois; the long hundred weight is 120 lbs..

HUNG, DOUBLE AND SINGLE

A term applied to sashes; the first when both the upper and lower sash are balanced by weights, for raising and depressing, and the last when only one, usually the lower one, is balanced over tbe pulleys

HUT

A small cottage or hovel, generally constructed of earthy materials, as strong loamy clay, &c.

HYDRAULICS

(Gr. and AvXor, a pipe.) That branch of natural philosophy which treats of the motion of liquids, the laws by which they are regulated, and the effects which they produce. By some authors the term hydrodynamics is used to express the science of the motion of fluids generally, whilst the term hydraulics is more particularly applied to the art of conducting, raising, and confining water, and to the construction and performance of waterworks.

HYDROSTATICS

he science which explains the properties of the equilibrium and pressure of liquids. It is the application of statics to the pe¬culiar constitution of water, or other bodies, existing in the perfectly liquid form. The following is the fundamental law whereon the whole doctrine of the equilibrium and pressure of liquids is founded : when a liquid mass is in equilibrium under the action of forces of any kind, every molecule of the mass sustains an equal pressure in all directions

HYPAETHRAL

(Gr. Tiro, under, and Aifhjp, the air.) A building or temple without a roof. The temples of this class are arranged by Vitruvius under the seventh order, which had ten columns on each front, and surrounded by a double portico as in dipteral temples. The cell was without roof, whence the name, but it generally had round it a portico of two ranges of columns, one above the other. See TEMPLE.

HYPERBOLA.

One of the conic sections, being that made by a plane cutting the opposite side of the cone produced above the vertex, or by a plane which makes a greater angle with the base than the opposite side of the cone makes.

HYPERBOLIC CONOID or HYPERBOLOID. A solid formed by the revolution of an hyperbola about its axis. See CONOID.

HYPERBOLIC CYLINDROID. A solid formed by the revolution of an hyperbola about its conjugate axis or line through the centre, perpendicular to the transverse axis.

HYPERTHYRUM

The lintel or cross-piece of the aperture of a doorway.

HYPOCAESTUM.

In ancient architecture, a vaulted apartment, from which the heat of the fire was distributed to the rooms above by means of earthen tubes. This contrivance, first used in baths, was afterwards adopted in private bouses, and is supposed to have diffused an agreeable and equal temperature through¬out the different rooms.

HYPOGJBUM

A term applied among the ancients to those parts of a building which were below the level of the ground.

HYPOPODIUM

A footstool used in the ancient baths.

HYPOSCENIUM

In ancient architecture, the front wall of the theatre, facing tbe orchestra from the stage.

HYPOTRACHEIUM

The slenderest part of the shaft of a column, being that immediately below the neck of a capital.

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